You are required to validate your Eurail Pass on or before your first day of travel. You can validate it by either presenting it and your passport to an agent at a ticket window or Customer Service window at the train station. They will date stamp your Eurail pass and enter the validity period.
On the train you will be required to present the validated Eurail pass to the conductor as needed. Remember that if you are traveling with a Eurail Flexipass in which you are required to write in the date you are traveling please do so before boarding the train. Conductors frown upon and can fine you for not having the date properly written on your Eurail pass.
Every Eurail Pass comes with a Eurail travel guide and a booklet with train schedules.
You can also check train schedules at the train station. In big train stations you will see the schedules on large overhead boards like in an airport. But in all train stations, posted somewhere is a big poster with the train schedules.